The Bulgarian state was established more than 13 centuries ago thus being one of the oldest European countries. However the lands of the today's state were inhabited by different tribes long before the establishment of the state itself. Irrefutable evidences prove that on these territories there was civilization even older of the Egyptian one. The Varna Chalcolite Necropolis found near Varna Lake in 1972 dates as far back as 4600-4200 B.C. which is around 2000 years earlier than the flourishing of Egyptian Civilization. Varna Gold Treasure is considered the oldest processed gold ever and is evidence for the highly artistic skills of one civilization that has already been called by many scientists “the oldest one in Europe”.


Today the archeological excavations continue and they bring to light evidence and new data about another developed ancient civilization – the Thracian Civilization, considered to have Indo-European origins. It is presumed that Thracian tribes settled on the Balkan Peninsula about 3500 B.C. The first historical data about them we find in Homer's Iliad, where Thracians are described as allies of the Trojans during the Trojan War. "The Father of History" Herodotus says that “Thracians are the most numerous tribe after the Indians”. Thracians establish rich and highly developed civilization proof for which are the many treasures and burial chambers (like the famous Kazanlak sepulchre) scattered all over our territory. It is also presumed that their civilization had strong influence over the forming of the Hellenic culture and that Ancient Greeks have their worship of Dionysius and myths for Orpheus thanks to Thracians. More...

Early Middle Ages

During the fourth century Thracian lands suffered many invasions from Goths, Huns and Avars.

The first Slav tribes settle in Thracian and Moesian lands toward the end of fifth century.

Sixth century sees the arrival of yet another tribe who settles in the lower basin of Danube river – proto-Bulgarians, who quickly mix-up with local Slavs and Romanized Thracians. For about a century proto-Bulgarians’ chief objective was to conduct quick and bloody pillaging raids on Byzantium.

Establishment of The Bulgarian state

For the first time the name Great Bulgaria was mentioned in Byzantine texts describing the tribal union that took place in 7th century in the lands between Caucasus, Volga and the Carpathians. Khan Kubrat was supreme ruler at the time and it is assumed that he was a Christian yet then and held the title Patrician. More...

The First Bulgarian Empire

Danube Bulgaria was established in 681 as a union between Bulgars and Slavs who settled here a century earlier. Leadership of the new state was taken by the ruler of the proto-Bulgarians – Khan Asparuh, who made Pliska his capital. In 704 the second Bulgarian ruler, Khan Tervel, was granted the title “Caesar” for the military support he gave to emperor Justinian, which created precedent in history. He became famous with his brilliant victory over the Arabs at Constantinople in 718 when his army joined forces with the army of Byzantine Emperor Leo III. More...

The Second Bulgarian Empire

Byzantine domination continued until 1185 when revolt, organized and led by two brothers of noble birth - Asen and Petar took place. The revolt was successful and cleared the way for the establishment of Second Bulgarian Empire with Tarnovo becoming capital, and enthronement of a new royal dynasty - the Asenovtsi dynasty. But Bulgarian Empire reaches his previous might no sooner than the reign of the youngest brother of them all – Tsar Kaloyan.

On 14 of April 1205 his armies won brilliant victory over the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade near Adrianopolis (present day Edirne). Emperor Baldwin, count of Flanders and Hainaut was taken prisoner and died mysteriously in 1206 in one of the guard towers surrounding Tarnovo, and which since then is called “Baldwin Tower”. More...

The Ottoman domination

From the end of 14th century until the end of 19th century Bulgaria disappears from the map of Europe and is included in Ottoman province Rumelia. The social, cultural and economic development of the state was forcibly interrupted. The independent Bulgarian Patriarchate was liquidated and brought under the supervision of Constantinople’s Patriarchate.

Bulgarian Revival

In 1762 a monk by the name of Paisiy Hilendarsky wrote and published small booklet called “Istoria Slavyanobolgarskaya” (Slavonic-Bulgarian History), which is evidence for the awakening of national self-awareness in Bulgarian people and which is considered the first work of the National Revival. This is a period marked by radical changes in all spheres of the public, economic, political and cultural life, which lasted more than a century. More...

Modern Bulgarian state

The modern Bulgarian state came into being on 3 of March 1878, when the Treaty of San Stefano puts an end to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. Bulgaria restores its territories from 14th century (including present day Republic of Macedonia). The first Bulgarian Knyaz was Alexander of Battenberg, a German Prince who was a nephew of the Russian Emperor Alexander II. Bulgaria got big territories on the Balkans and that is why the treaty was revised at the Congress in Berlin held in June 1878. More...


According to the Constitution of 1991 Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic. The Bulgarian parliament - the National Assembly - consists of 240 deputies, elected for a term of 4 years. The Parliament has legislative power, passes acts, approves the government budget, fixes dates for presidential elections, elects and recalls of the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers, decides on declaring wars, deployment of troops outside Bulgaria and the ratification of international treaties and agreements. The President of the Republic, who has representative functions, is elected directly for a term of 5 years with the right of one-time re-election. The president is the head of the state, the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Army and the Chairman of the Consulting Council on National Security. The executive power belongs to the Council of Minister, which is led by Prime Minister.